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Type: SME Country: Belgium
General description: UNIFE is a European association that represents the interests of the railway supply industry in Europe at the level of both European and international institutions. Its membership comprises manufacturers and integrators of railway rolling stock, subsystems, components, signalling equipment and infrastructure. Its mission is to pro-actively develop an environment in which UNIFE members can provide competitive rail solutions for sustainable mobility.
1. Promote rail transport through dialogue with EU institutions and all important stakeholders
2. Lobby for rail issues by leading initiatives with National Rail Supply Industry Associations
3. Deliver railway interoperability & standardisation for improved LCC & RAMS
4. Ensure European rail supply industry leadership through joint research & innovation
5. Convince the public that rail transport is the favourable solution for the 21st century challenges of increased mobility, economic growth and environmental protection
R&D related tasks:
Project coordination and dissemination activities
Mediation between UNIFE/industry members and all other interests
Coordination of input into standardisation activities at the end of the project
Previous experience UNIFE is the coordinator of various FP6 + FP7 projects and participates in dissemination activities for most industry-led and collaborative rail sector projects. UNIFE is the only association representing the railway industry and is ideally placed for coordinating projects and disseminating to its wide membership base.
Staff members undertaking the work
Eric FONTANEL is the UNIFE General Manager and a well-experienced railway industry professional. In his previous experience at ALSTOM Transport, he held the position of Director for Standards and Regulations and was actively involved in UNIFE’s work in this field. Mr Fontanel is perfectly aware of all issues in the railway industry.
Giorgio TRAVAINI has been working at UNIFE since May 2007. As Technical Affairs Manager, he is responsible for the coordination of EU-funded research projects and assistance on technical committees. He has an engineering (Polytechnic of Turin) and public affairs background (London South Bank University) and he assisted Mr. Paolo Costa, Chairperson of the Transport and Tourism Committee of the European Parliament, before joining UNIFE. Giorgio Travaini is the UNIFE contact person for ERRAC Roadmap, TRANSFEU, Skillrail and was also involved in the project WIDEM. He is also the responsible person for ERWA, the UNIFE rail wheels and wheelsets committee.
Max OBENAUS is the UNIFE Head of Communications. Max used to be the Head of Helios Media’s Brussels office, the publisher of “Agenda Weekly” and “European Agenda”, after serving as an online editor of Deutsche Welle TV and a freelance journalist. He also holds a MSc in International Politics from the University of London.
Léa PATIES Léa joined UNIFE in May 2010. She works in the Railway Systems Unit as a Project Manager. She previously gained experience in EU research programmes and services to large and medium-sized companies as a consultant in public subsidies at Ineum Consulting in Brussels. Léa also participated in dissemination activities of TRANSFEU and ERRAC-Roadmaps while an intern at UNIFE in 2009. Léa graduated in European studies and project management from the International Relations Institute from Strasbourg. She is fluent in French, English and Spanish.
Publications & other project participation
Project references EUROPEAN key related projects:
In the 5th framework programme: TRAINSAFE and SAMNET thematic networks, ERRAC Accompanying Measures.
In the 6th framework programme: WIDEM, MODTRAIN IP, MODURBAN IP, InteGRail IP, Railenergy, EURNEX Network of Excellence, ERRAC SSA, MODBRAKE, INNOTRACK, URBANTRACK, GLOBALVIEW.
In the 7th framework programme: CLEANER-D, AEROTRAIN, DYNOTRAIN, PANTOTRAIN, PM’n’IDEA.
Type: OTH Country: France
General description: ALSTOM is a global specialist in energy and transport infrastructure. The company serves the energy market through its activities in the fields of power generation, power transmission and distribution, and the transport market through its activities in rail. The Railway Sector, ALSTOM Transport is a leading solutions provider to the rail industry world-wide, with 27,900 employees (16,000 in Europe) and annual net sales near 6 billion €. ALSTOM annual turn over is about 15% of the total world market. It offers a complete range of products and services from integrated transport systems, rolling stock of all types, through signalling and train control systems, to complete customer service packages and infrastructure. ALSTOM is the leader in high-speed rail system. ALSTOM locomotives are in use throughout the world. In the urban and suburban mass transit sectors, they have supplied single and double deck electric multiple units and coaches, metros and light rail systems to many major cities around the world. ALSTOM is also a leading specialist in railway automation, signalling and control systems. ALSTOM Transport has a long tradition of partnership with public and private research centres throughout the world. The nationally and EU funded projects give the opportunity to extend the partnership with R&D centres in Europe.
Role within the project: ALSTOM Transport maintains fleets of trains in different European countries. Test and validation of NDT systems will occur on ALSTOM on vehicles.
Staff members undertaking the work
Daniel Cadet, VP External Affairs, is in charge of EU Projects within ALSTOM Transport. He holds a Master degree from Ecole Normale Supérieure and a PhD from Ecole Polytechnique.
Christian Ponticelli is heading departments in charge of designing maintenance plans for VHST and HST trains since 2003. He gained his Master in Mechanical engineering from Ecole Centrale Nantes in 1983. Christian Ponticelli is heading departments in charge of designing maintenance plans for VHST and HST trains since 2003. He gained his Master in Mechanical engineering from Ecole Centrale Nantes in 1983.
John Williams has a Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering from Coventry University and is a Chartered Engineer. He joined ALSTOM as a graduate in 2001 in the Railway Industry. He focuses on R&D regarding condition monitoring of Rolling Stock components including wheelsets. He is currently a senior engineer responsible for wheelsets in TLS Mainline UK. He also attends and contributes to the UK's Wheelset Management Group attended by many of the UK Rail Industry's wheelset stakeholders.
Publications & other project participation
EUROPEAN: Surface transport: MODTRAIN, MODURBAN, INTEGRAIL, RAILENERGY, URBANTRACK, INNOTRACK, TRIOTRAIN, CLEANER-D, EUROPAC, RAILCOM, WIDEM, SILENCE, EUDD+, TRANSFEU, PM'n'IDEA, etc.
NATIONAL: VITFER, STEEM, SUPERSTORE, STARDAMP, AQCOUFREN, etc.
Type: OTH Country: Italy
General description: ANSALDO BREDA is the first manufacturer of railway transportation vehicles in Italy. It designs and produces the complete vehicle system autonomously, from mechanical parts as carbody and bogie, to electrical traction and auxiliary equipments. Loco E 402 bitension (3kV cc – 25kV ca.) is the most powerful and fast universal loco on the Italian railway network, carrying passenger trains at 220 km/h and freight trains at 160 km/h. ANSALDO BREDA is also present on the international market, among others supplying the Copenhagen Metro with automatic drive. It has also designed and produced high speed trains (V=250 km/h) for the Holland-Belgium Consortium.
Role within the project: ANSALDO BREDA will participate in: • bogie design for trains locomotives, metros and trams both for heavy and for light application • bogie diagnostic system; • design of the axles Staff members undertaking the work Antonello Gallone heads the Research-Development Department and is specialized in bogie design and mechanical research. Luca Niro is a bogie designer in the Bogie Design Department. Since 2008, he has been a member of the working group 11 of the Technical Committee 256 – Sub Committee 2 for the writing of the new European Standards (or the revision of the existing ones) concerning wheels, axles and wheelsets of the railway vehicles.
Publications & other project participation
EUROPEAN: ANSALDO BREDA lead the HEMBOT project (1997-2003) and participated in a wide range of projects as MODTRAIN (2004-2008, MODBOGIE module leader), MODBRAKE (2006-2009, WP Leader), VAMPIRE, and HEMBOT. ANSALDO BREDA participates in a new regional EMU platform and in the following Italian research associations: • Research and Development Association for Innovative Railway Transportation Technologies (TRAIN); • Innovative Research Association for the South (CRIS); • IMAST– Technological district on polymeric and composite materials – engineering and structures ANSALDO BREDA also conducts research in collaboration with the Universities of Milano, Pisa, Firenze, Roma, and Napoli.
Type: OTH Country: Czech Republic
General description: BONATRANS manufactures and offers railway wheelsets, rolled railway wheels and rubber-cushioned wheels, railway axles, railway discs and tyres and noise and vibration absorbers for rail wheels. BONATRANS provides its customers with a comprehensive service connected with development and approval of new designs. New product designs are developed through mathematic modelling of the actual loading of wheels and axles (finite element method, modal analysis, etc.). Properties of the proposed design are verified by tests performed on specimen and real sized samples (braking tests, fatigue tests, noise level tests, etc.). BONATRANS is a member of Union of European Railway Industries.
R&D Experience: The Technical department proposes new technical equipment for production lines, prepares new designs of products, makes calculations and various tests of products and cooperates with a number of renowned research institutes and universities. For new rolling stock products and for the replacement of obsolete designs, BONATRANS provides its customers with a comprehensive service connected with development and approval of new designs; starting with discussions of initial data and drafting of a new design through to the organisation and ensuring testing of parts for prototype testing and their approval for operation. New product designs are developed through mathematic modelling of the actual loading of wheels and axles. Models used in development by BONATRANS are based on a valuable information database. Data included in this database have been collected by BONATRANS personnel through empirical research and analyses.
Role within the project: BONATRANS will mainly realize fatigue test of the axles. They will take care of the preparation of procedures for testing of the small test specimen (Æ10mm, medium test specimen (in scale 1:3) and full-scale specimen. They will realize a complete analyze and verification including material tests and analyze. All realised tests will be evaluated by BONATRANS. Staff members undertaking the work
Radim Zima has been in the company since 1989 and his experience in wheelset problematic includes production technology, designing of new construction and their material, testing scheduling. Ph.D. degree has been obtained for the field of material science. He is co-author of many patents. Nowadays, he works as technical manager.
Miroslav Novosad has been in the company since 1994 and his experience includes tests of wheels and axles, test of paintings, test machines and procedures Ph.D. degree has been obtained for the field of material science. Nowadays, he works as technical engineer specialist.
Publications & other project participation
Publications: provided in the end notes
Type: OTH Country: Spain
General description: Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF), S.A., funded in 1917, is one of the international market leaders in the design, manufacture, maintenance and supply of equipment and components for railway systems. Since its inception, CAF stands out for its versatility, flexibility and readiness to adapt to the customers’ needs, in all areas: CAF's experience in the five continents and compliance with international standards has resulted in a "total quality" approach to every project. CAF’s Engineering and R&D Departments are staffed by 400 experienced engineers. The facilities also include laboratories, where all types of static and dynamic trials and tests are carried out. It has developed its own Railway Dynamics Simulation software called SIDIVE. CAF has developed important technological advances; such as the SIBI tilting system, the BRAVA gauge change system, and the COSMOS control system. The technological advances developed by CAF have been successfully implemented in railroad systems all around the world, providing safety, comfort and satisfaction to millions of users. CAF's products represent a large percentage of Spanish railroad system vehicles. The activity of CAF S.A. also includes the design and manufacturing of wheel-sets for railway vehicles, activity integrated in the Wheels and Axles Business Unit. This Unit designs and manufactures components, i.e. wheels, axles and wheel-sets for many railway applications, ranging from commuter and urban vehicles to freight wagons, locomotives and high speed trains. These components are not only assembled in CAF’s own vehicles but also as separate items that are sold to a large number of rail companies across the world. Currently, there are 450 employees working at the Wheels & Axles Business Unit and, as a producer of the previously mentioned components, this Unit is a member of UNIFE committee for rail wheels and wheelsets (ERWA).
Role within the project: CAF will lead WP06; hence it will coordinate the RAMS/LCC activities. As an axle producer, CAF will provide the expertise gained through decades of manufacturing and supplying products to the railway industry. CAF will also be strongly involved in practically all the tasks defined in the project in order to develop the innovative solutions for increasing the fatigue resistance and minimizing the risk of failure of axles in service.
Staff members undertaking the work
Aitor LANDABEREA has a BSc in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Glasgow (UK) and MSc in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Navarra and obtained his PhD in 2002. He has worked for more than 10 years at INASMET, a Materials Research Centre (Spain), as principal investigator and project manager in the field of numerical modelling of innovative processes and advanced product development. In 2007, he joined CAF as Technical Manager of the Wheels and Axles Business Unit. He is member of the European Standardisation Working Group for wheel-sets CEN TC 256/SC 2/WG 11 since 2007.
Urtzi MONTALVO has a MSc in Mechanical Engineering and joined the company in 2002. He headed the Wheels and Axles this Unit. He is member of the European Standardisation Working Group for wheel-sets CEN TC 256/SC 2/WG 11.
Luis LASA is graduated in Chemistry in 1998, Master in Materials Chemistry (University of Canterbury) and PhD in Chemical Science (University of Navarra). He joined CAF as head of the Testing Laboratories before becoming head of the Quality Department. Throughout his technical activity he has gained wide experience in materials together with inspection and testing technologies applied in wheel-set components.
José Ignacio SARRIÉS is graduated in Chemistry from the UPV, he joined CAF in 2007 and currently is the Responsible for R&D activities related to materials. Previously, he gained a Scholarship to work at the European Space Agency in Holland and he was head of Materials for Projects in Gamesa Desarrollos Aeronáuticos S.A. and worked for INASMET, a Research Centre in the field of materials, as Principal Investigator.
Publications & other project participation Project references
NATIONAL: Development of advanced methodologies for the design and validation of railway wheel-sets (2007-2010), Ecological technologies for urban transport (2008-2011), Development of advanced methodologies for the design and validation of railway wheel-sets (2009-2011) as a coordinator.
EUROPEAN: SILENT FREIGHT (1996-1999), EUROMAIN (2002-2004), INTEGRAIL (2005-2008) as partner.
Type: OTH Country: Germany
General Description: Deutsche Bahn AG is the leading mobility and logistics service provider in Germany, with approximately a quarter of a million employees. (www.deutschebahn.com). Over the past few years, the Deutsche Bahn Group has developed, step by step, into a leading international mobility and logistics services provider. The Group provides services in three major divisions: it • ensures mobility for its customers in long-distance, regional, and urban transport, • provides integrated transportation and logistics services worldwide, • operates the track infrastructure and offers transport- related services. DB’s technical know-how is pooled at its engineering centre DB Systemtechnik, Europe’s biggest centre of excellence for railway technology. It boasts a thousand-strong workforce and 18 integrated test centres. DB Systemtechnik draws up technical and organisational solutions for rolling stock, infrastructure facilities and command-control systems plus their maintenance systems as well as for environmental protection issues. It also provides review and consultancy services for the design, commissioning and optimisation phases. (www.db-systemtechnik.de).
Role within the consortium: For EURAXLES, several expert departments will make available their expertise in: • Wheelset technology; calculation, service and maintenance • NDT in light and heavy maintenance • Materials testing; coating systems • Calculation of wheelset components, full-scale fatigue test, fracture mechanical calculation, determination of load spectra Staff members undertaking the work Dirk Müller holds a degree in mechanical engineering with specialisation in rail vehicle engineering obtained from Technical University of Dresden. In 1996 he joined Deutsche Bahn as a specialist for wheelset technology, since 2005 he is deputy head of wheelset department. In 1996 he became member of the ERRI B 169 "Wheelset expert committee" and in 1997 member of the ERRI B 126.13 expert committee for the introduction of composite brake blocks for freight transport vehicles. He is member of CEN TC 256/SC2/WG 11 "standardisation of wheelset components" and at present leader of the UIC project "Failure Tolerance Concept freight axles". Dr. Christian Bohne studied materials sciences at Technical University Berlin and received a PhD from the Hahn-Meitner-Institute Berlin (HMI) in November 2002. He was employed as a research assistant at TU Berlin from December 200 until May 2002. Since June 2002 he is working as a technical expert at DB Systemtechnik's department for materials engineering and weak-point analysis in Brandenburg-Kirchmöser. Thomas Oelschlägel holds a degree in mechanical engineering with specialisation in rail vehicle engineering obtained from the Technical University of Dresden. In 1997 he joined Deutsche Bahn AG as an engineer for wheelset maintenance at the Neumünster Maintenance Workshop (heavy vehicle maintenance). He qualified as a European welding engineer in 2001. Since November 2002 he is working for DB Systemtechnik's expert department for non-destructive materials. He has been responsible for the introduction of mechanised ultrasonic testing of railway axles and currently is involved in the support for 40 mechanised testing facilities at DB. He also advised Czech Railways and the Swiss Federal Railways for the introduction of such testing methods.
Publications & other project participation Publications: • Several published and unpublished reports on full-scale fatigue tests performed on various wheel and axle and material steel grades • Several published and unpublished reports on non-destructive and destructive testing for wheelset components (in-service and following damages)
EUROPEAN: DB participated in numerous EU-funded projects, most recently in projects such as MODBRAKE, MODTRAIN, RAILCOM, EUROPAC, SILENCE, INNOTRACK, INESS, TRANSFEU, TIGER, CleanER-D, AeroTain, DynoTrain, PantoTrain. Several non-funded projects with relevance to EURAXLES such as UIC project “Failure Tolerance Concept Freight Axles”
NATIONAL: (with relevance to EURAXLES): EBFW I; “Safe and economic design of running gears” (2000-2004) and EBFW II; “Safe and economic service of running gears” (2004-2008), EBFW III, Practise orientated inspection intervals for axles“ (2010 – 2014 with German national funding and DB-internal project ORSI (optimised wheelset maintenance).
Type: HSE Country: France
General description: Since 1894, The Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (ENSCL), or the National Graduate School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Lille, has been closely following scientific and technological developments in the training of its graduates. ENSCL provides its students with a solid grounding in chemistry, metallurgy, materials, formulation, processes and catalysis. ENSCL has trained over 3,600 graduates whose qualities and skills are recognised worldwide.
L’ENSCL is: • An engineering qualification equivalent to the Master’s degree. • A state graduate school. • One of the 19 French Graduate Chemistry schools in the “Federation Gay-Lussac”. • A permanent connection with research and industry.
Some figures: • 2,500 engineers working worldwide. • 360 students. • 47 research-teachers and lecturers. • 4 internationally recognized research laboratories. • 80 external lecturers. • 300 industrial partners. ENSCL has developed an especially active research policy in the basic research and applied science areas. This development has been carried out in close cooperation and with the support of Lille’s Science and Technology University (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille) based on the two institutions’ close relations. The scientific quality of the work carried out in four of the School’s research teams is governed by its status as an associate unit to the CNRS or a combined unit of the CNRS. Each of these teams maintains productive relations with the industrial sector and the scientific community (both on a public and private level nationally) by filing patents and publishing a substantial number of articles each year in internationally read journals. The team: The group PERF (Procédés d’Elaboration de Revêtements Fonctionnels) of ENSCL is a laboratory located on the campus of the university of Lille (university of sciences and technologies). The objective of the group is to associate a fundamental research of high quality and a transfer of its know-how to industrial partners. This last point is developed through a large number of industrial contractual cooperations and through the existence of a centre of transfer of technologies called CREPIM. The strategy of this centre aims at transforming the innovating concepts into realistic solutions usable by industries.
Role within the project: Very powerful techniques for surface characterisation of metallic surfaces such as Electron Microprobe analysis for surface analysis of corroded and un-corroded surfaces. Techniques that permit to explain corrosion mechanism such as Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and low pressure and atmospheric cold plasma technologies for surface modification and elaboration of thin films on metallic surfaces.
The PERF laboratory will contribute to: • study new surface preparation conditions of the axle to provide a good adherence of coated systems. Grit Blasting, Machine Surface Finish, Alternative methods will be investigated and associated physicochemical analysis will be performed, • develop sol-gel coatings and water based paints, • characterise the corrosion behaviour and define testing procedures, • study of structure-property relationships. The anticorrosive behaviour of the coatings mainly depends on the degree of reticulation, the film’s porosity, the interface properties and the surface preparation.
Staff members undertaking the work Charafeddine Jama – in the organisation since 1999, he teaches and researches in thermodynamic and surface modification. His background is in the Development of surface modification processes. Publications & other project participation Publications : Provided in the endnote.
EUROPEAN: FP6: Flexifunbar (Surface characterisation); FP6: Predfirenano (Surface modification processes); FP7: Lysa (New materials to face evolution European fire regulations).
General description: Since 1894, The Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (ENSCL), or the National Graduate School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering of Lille, has been closely following scientific and technological developments in the training of its graduates. ENSCL provides its students with a solid grounding in chemistry, metallurgy, materials, formulation, processes and catalysis. ENSCL has trained over 3,600 graduates whose qualities and skills are recognised worldwide. L’ENSCL is:• An engineering qualification equivalent to the Master’s degree.• A state graduate school.• One of the 19 French Graduate Chemistry schools in the “Federation Gay-Lussac”.• A permanent connection with research and industry.Some figures:• 2,500 engineers working worldwide.• 360 students.• 47 research-teachers and lecturers.• 4 internationally recognized research laboratories.• 80 external lecturers.• 300 industrial partners.ENSCL has developed an especially active research policy in the basic research and applied science areas. This development has been carried out in close cooperation and with the support of Lille’s Science and Technology University (Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille) based on the two institutions’ close relations. The scientific quality of the work carried out in four of the School’s research teams is governed by its status as an associate unit to the CNRS or a combined unit of the CNRS. Each of these teams maintains productive relations with the industrial sector and the scientific community (both on a public and private level nationally) by filing patents and publishing a substantial number of articles each year in internationally read journals.
The team: The group PERF (Procédés d’Elaboration de Revêtements Fonctionnels) of ENSCL is a laboratory located on the campus of the university of Lille (university of sciences and technologies). The objective of the group is to associate a fundamental research of high quality and a transfer of its know-how to industrial partners. This last point is developed through a large number of industrial contractual cooperations and through the existence of a centre of transfer of technologies called CREPIM. The strategy of this centre aims at transforming the innovating concepts into realistic solutions usable by industries.
Role within the project: Very powerful techniques for surface characterisation of metallic surfaces such as Electron Microprobe analysis for surface analysis of corroded and un-corroded surfaces. Techniques that permit to explain corrosion mechanism such as Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and low pressure and atmospheric cold plasma technologies for surface modification and elaboration of thin films on metallic surfaces.The PERF laboratory will contribute to: • study new surface preparation conditions of the axle to provide a good adherence of coated systems. Grit Blasting, Machine Surface Finish, Alternative methods will be investigated and associated physicochemical analysis will be performed, • develop sol-gel coatings and water based paints, • characterise the corrosion behaviour and define testing procedures,• study of structure-property relationships. The anticorrosive behaviour of the coatings mainly depends on the degree of reticulation, the film’s porosity, the interface properties and the surface preparation.Staff members undertaking the workCharafeddine Jama – in the organisation since 1999, he teaches and researches in thermodynamic and surface modification. His background is in the Development of surface modification processes. Publications & other project participation
Publications: Provided in the endnote. Project referencesEUROPEAN: FP6: Flexifunbar (Surface characterisation); FP6: Predfirenano (Surface modification processes); FP7: Lysa (New materials to face evolution European fire regulations).
Type: RO Country: Germany Fraunhofer
Society will be made up of two research institutes: Fraunhofer IWM and Fraunhofer IZFP.
1. Fraunhofer IWM General description: The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM is part of the Fraunhofer Research Association (Gesellschaft). It characterises, simulates and evaluates the behaviour of materials, components and systems under the influence of external forces in different environments. It works on behalf of companies and public contractors to develop solutions that improve the safety, reliability, durability and functionality of technical components and systems, thus making them more cost-effective, energy-efficient, and economical with natural resources. The Fraunhofer IWM places high demands on itself in terms of its scientific achievements, and holds a leading position in its core fields of expertise, i.e. material and component characterisation, modelling and simulation of materials, and interfacial and surface engineering.
Fields: Experimental and numerical assessment of materials and components, Atomistic modelling of materials, Damage modelling, Fracture Mechanics and Fatigue assessment, Process modelling Leibniz award 2008 (Germany), Prof. Dr. Peter Gumbsch. The Fraunhofer Association is highly known research organisation within Europe. Fraunhofer IWM covers the engineering material mechanics aspects.
Role within the project: Fraunhofer IWM will contribute to the engineering material mechanics aspects with expertise in fatigue and fracture mechanics testing, development of special fretting fatigue tests and models, damage modelling of materials, numerical and experimental assessment on the component level. Fraunhofer IWM will perform numerical stress analyses for the press fit wheel-axle assembly with a special emphasis on modelling the allowance for interference and its statistical scatter, contact interaction with a possible variation of the friction coefficient during the service time, as well as material hardening behaviour. As plastic deformation may occur in the press fit assembly during manufacturing and in service, different ways of process modelling – axle intrusion into the wheel versus simplified analysis by modelling wheel shrinkage onto the axle – will be compared and the significance of the cyclic plasticity modelling will be demonstrated. In view of multi-axial stress state in a press fit assembly, various fatigue parameters (e.g. SWT, Brown-Miller, Fatemi-Socie, Glinka et al., Dang Van etc.) will be applied and using appropriate experimental results of other project partners or from the literature. Furthermore Fraunhofer IWM will perform tests on small scale specimens made of EA1N and EA4T steels in order to derive S-N curves and fatigue limits for the materials in question. Specimens of different size, with and without notches, and – optionally – subjected to rotary and plane bending are to be investigated. A particular output of this test program will be a statistical approach, based on the weakest link model, which may be applied to predict fatigue limits and crack initiation in full-scale axles, in particular in press fit parts.
2. Fraunhofer IZFP General description: Fraunhofer IZFP (Institute for Non-destructive Testing, NDT) is engaged in R&D covering: • The physical basic principles of NDT, • Materials characterisation, and Control and • Monitoring of production and maintenance processes in transportation and production. The results achieved within IZFP are used in industrial applications when quality assurance and/or proof of technical safety and reliability is required. The methodological expertise comprises physical fundamentals, sensor technology, test instrument design and manufacturing, processing technologies, techniques for data evaluation and documentation, and in addition, qualification and validation of new inspection and testing procedures including instrument and system maintenance, staff training, inspection and testing services provided at the institute or with a customer on-site. IZFP is involved in developing techniques and assembling of systems and devices for industrial inspection, helping to assure quality and safety standards. The products developed by IZFP are used in automotive industry, oil and gas supply, transportation, aerospace and many others. IZFP enjoys a proven record of applying computed tomography, ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and laser methods for data evaluation and documentation. A particular area of the Institute's competence is a wide range of possible services not yet regulated in standards, which includes evaluating new, innovative inspection procedures. IZFP has around 300 employees, including student workers and researchers on an under- and postgraduate level as well as guest researchers and scientists. Permanent staffs consist of 123 scientists, engineers, and technicians, plus 32 employees in administration and general infrastructure. Besides its knowledge and expertise over the breadth of all conventional and emerging NDT technology IZFP is considered as the leading European NDT R&D institution. It enjoys an extensive experience in designing, configuring, assembling, customising, validating and assessing all types of rail axle and wheel testing methods and systems including solid as well as hollow axles which matches well with what is planned in the project. IZFP is also a technology supplier of inspection systems to German Railways (DB AG) and to other rail system operators for more than 10 years concerning the wheel set, hollow and solid axle inspection technology.
Role within the project: In WP5 the objective of IZFP is to compile a report to the state of the art of existing NDT technology with the special task to study non-contact optical and thermo-optical NDT techniques including pattern recognition to reliably describe in terms of POD the limit of detectability.
Staff members undertaking the work
1. Fraunhofer IWM
Dr. Michael Luke, mechanical and material engineer graduated from the University of Essen, Germany; ph.D. at the University of Duisburg, Germany; professional career: 1996-2002, Deutsche Bahn AG, Kirchmöser, Germany, assessment of vehicle and track components, since 2002, Fraunhofer IWM, Freiburg, Germany, head of material fatigue & residual stresses; main working topics: fracture mechanics, fatigue, exp. & num. component assessment, welding simulation, residual stress analysis
Dr. Igor Varfolomeev graduated from the Kiev Polytechnic Institute in 1986 as mechanical engineer. In 1989 he has received the PhD degree at the Institute for Problems of Strength (IPS), Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. 1989-1994 he has been with the IPS as research, later as senior research scientist. Since 1994 he is being with the Fraunhofer IWM, Freiburg, working at the business unit “Component Safety”. Main research topics cover testing and modelling of material and component behaviour under mechanical and thermal loading, development and application of analytical models for the assessment of cracked components, probabilistic methods in fracture mechanics.
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Michael Burdack, technical staff, expert in fatigue testing and fracture mechanics assessment of materials and components.
2. Fraunhofer IZFP Dipl.-Phys.Wolfgang KAPPES, performed studies in physics at the Saar university and is with Fraunhofer IZFP since 1980. His expertise in designing ultrasonic NDT techniques for characterisation of material irregularities. Actually he is in the Fraunhofer IZFP the responsible project engineer for projects concerning the industrial sector of railways. His role in the project is to prepare and to evaluate the questionnaire concerning the currently in use equipment for in-service inspection of axles according to task 5.1, and to compile material concerning the application of optical and thermal-optical NDT which could possibly be applied to inspect axles without disassembling.
Publications & other project participation
Publications : Provided in the endnote.
Project references EUROPEAN: PROJECT: MODTRAIN/MODBOGIE as a partner in 2004-2007.
Type: OTH Country: Germany
General description: Gutehoffnungshütte Radsatz GmbH (GHH Radsatz) is a company of the GHH-VALDUNES group. The group is under the head of the GHH Radsatz International Holding GmbH that established in February 2008. It has 8 locations in Europe and the world, with about 225 employees at GHH Radsatz in Oberhausen Germany. Based on almost 200 years of experience, GHH Radsatz delivers the complete product range of component applications for the railway transport industry and operators such as driven and non-driven wheel-sets for heavy rail, high speed trains, locomotives, electric trains, diesel-powered trains, metros, freight cars, commuter trains, light rail vehicles, passenger cars and freight cars. Their running gear components and systems for low-platform vehicles include independent wheel axles, solid wheels, tire wheels, rubber-sprung wheels, wheel-set axles, non-driven wheels and acoustic absorbers. They also construct measurement and diagnostic systems including wheel-set monitoring technology. The R&D team maintains close cooperation with several universities and research institutes. The team has optimised processes of machining and painting of axles and wheels. The R&D dept, together with operators, has participated in different working groups to investigate the best solutions.
Role within the project: GHH is the WP4 Leader and is responsible for FEA calculations including the strength assessment of the component parts of wheel sets, running gear components and systems for low-platform vehicles. This partner will perform product qualification tests according the EN Standards. They will also test new products and carry out measurements regarding the performance of wheelsets, carry out stress measurements in service. Their NDT expertise is based on long experience on light and heavy inspection methods during quality test in the production and maintenance.
Staff members undertaking the work Thomas GERLACH, Dipl. Engineer, (mechanical engineering /construction technology). In 1987, he first joined MAN-GHH AG (former GHH) as a project engineer for track-bound vehicles and special undercarriages and became project manager for track-bound steel making plant vehicles before serving as a development and calculation engineer. After that, he started as a team manager of the development, calculation and testing department, to further become team manager for the R&D department. His research focus is on the development, calculation, design and testing of wheel-sets and running gear components for railway industry applications. He is a long-standing member of the national DIN FSF NA 087-02-01 AA Wheel-sets and European standardisation working group for wheel-sets CEN TC 265 / SC2 / WG11 and of the UNIFE rail wheels and wheelsets technical committee (ERWA) as well as other national working groups related to the VDB and the Railway Industries.
Christian Kemp-Lettkamp, Dipl. Engineer, (mechanical engineering/railway technology) he started his career in the engineering company, Oehmichen & Bürgers Industrial Planning GmbH working on high speed and light rail application in the engineering of car bodies and bogies for Siemens. He now works as an R&D Engineer in the R&D team of GHH with a focus on axles and wheel-sets. Ralf Künzl, Dipl. Engineer, studies manufacturing technology and mechanical engineering at the University of Essen in Germany (1981-1987). 1987 admission into MAN GHH AG in Oberhausen as a project engineer for mining winders. Since 1996, he was first a project manager for complex mining projects and then team leader. In 2001, he was a project engineer for the design and calculation of heavy rail wheelset components in GHH. Since 2005, he is team leader of the department design, calculation (axle-, wheelset- and FEA-calculations) and technical project management for heavy rail applications. Michael Truschel, He is an expert and technician in material science and a NDT level 3 according to EN standards. He is also European thermal coating specialist. Since 2006, he is the head of quality department and a quality-inspector at GHH.
Publications & other project participation Publications : Provided in the endnote. Several publications related to the project have been written and presented at international conferences. GHH has participated in 3 related national research projects and 1 European project:
Project references NATIONAL: Safe and economic design of running gears, EBFW (2000 – 2004); Safe and economic service of running gears, EBFW II (2004 – 2008); EBFW III, „Practise orientated inspection intervals for axles“ (2010 – 2014); “Low noise train on real track, LZarG (2007 – 2008) EUROPEAN: “Protection against corrosion and mechanical aggression” (2004 – 2006)
Type: OTH Country: France
General description: INEUM is an entity of Management Consulting Group Plc, listed on the London Stock Exchange, with more than 3,000 employees in 30 offices on 5 continents and a turnover of €429 million in 2008. INEUM is a consulting company offering to its clients, solutions for project management, complex program management, strategy, operational performance improvement and service transactions. INEUM holds a specific department which provides assistance and consulting services for all types of entities in the identification, mobilisation and management of regional, national and international subsidies for their projects, and disseminates competencies and expertise through specialised and adapted seminars and training sessions.
Role within the project: Together with the coordinator, the INEUM team dedicated to EURAXLES will ensure the global coordination of the technical, scientific and financial aspects. They will ensure that the activities are performed on time, within the planned budget, while anticipating any deviations. They will propose some personalized templates, organize the different meetings, write the minutes, manage the preparation of the periodic and final reports to the European Commission as well as the internal reports, and prepare the grant agreement’s amendment, if any. INEUM will provide the consortium with different tools enabling the efficient management of the EURAXLES project: secure collaborative platform to share and work together on project documents, audio-conference system…
Staff members undertaking the work Mikaël GUERRERO, is a Senior Manager at INEUM. He has been an expert in European research projects funded by the European Commission for over 10 years. Flore GOUAUX, PhD, is a Manager at INEUM who has been working on the management and set-up of European projects for 10 years. She has contributed to the management of very large European projects (up to 50M€ budget). Jennifer SHAW-TABERLET, PhD, is a Consultant with expertise in the setting-up, negotiation and management of European research projects and networks. She has set-up 10 FP7 research proposals, and managed (up to 17 partners, 9M€ funding). In addition, she served as project manager for Biogasmax, an FP6 Transport project (32 partners, 7.4M€ in funding). Antoine ASTIC is a Consultant with expertise in optimizing and setting up subsidy requests for public and private organisations. He has gained knowledge of the funding and governance of public and private organisations, both at European and national levels.
Publications & other project participation Project references EUROPEAN: FP6, FP7, Life+, Eco-Innovation, Marco Polo, Structural Funds NATIONAL: Projects in several European countries, in different themes (Health, Information & communication technologies, Nanosciences, nanotechnologies, materials & new production technologies, Environment).
Type: SME Country: Spain
General description: INTERLAB Ingeniería Electrónica or ULTRASEN Electronic Engineering is a Spanish SME providing tailored solutions and innovative equipment in the areas of NDT, professional electronics and fibre-optic chemical sensors. Based in Madrid, the company draws together a team accumulating extensive experience in industrial and high-technology projects. ULTRASEN develops on-board signal processing and monitoring & control electronic sub-systems. In the field of NDT, ULTRASEN is an active developer and manufacturer of automatic inspection systems for the steel, petrochemical industries, being its main activity focused on the railway sector. For this respect, it is important to remark the development of innovative systems for the automatic inspection of wheels and axles, both hollow and solid, accomplished by ULTRASEN during the last eight years. These inspection systems are the fruit of ULTRASEN’s collaboration with some of the main actors of railway industry such as RENFE, METRO de MADRID, ALSTOM, IRVIA, etc. Role within the project ULTRASEN will have a major participation in the simulation and development tasks of the demonstrator in the WP5. The company will also be involved in the identification of the present day techniques and their limitations. They will realize an evaluation report describing manufactured equipments in terms of technical feasibility as well as in terms of cost estimation. They will also participate, with minor intensity, in the WP3 related to factory inspection. ULTRASEN disposes of proprietary technologies both for NDT and electronic hardware development which will be applied to the project.
Staff members undertaking the work José Luis García: Technical Director of ULTRASEN. Electronic engineer with 30 years of experience in electronics development projects. Having initiated his career in the Astrophysics Institute of the Canary Islands has subsequently occupied managerial positions in INDRA and TGI. Participant in several EU projects and evaluator for the GROWTH program. Javier Becerra: after achieving his degree in Telecommunications Engineering at the Universidad Pública de Navarra (Pamplona, Spain), he obtained a PhD in Signal and Image Processing at the Université de Bordeaux I (Bordeaux, France). He has a wide international experience both at University (one year at the ESIEE-Paris in Paris-France, 5 years at the ENSEIRB in Bordeaux-France) and Industry (3 months internship at GE Medical Systems in Buc-France, 6 months project at Agilent Technologies in Stuttgart-Germany). For the last three years he has been leading ULTRASEN’s activity in the NDT area, an experience which has allowed him to gain an in-depth knowledge of both ultrasound and artificial vision technology.
Publications & other project participation Publications (a) Active participation in the 8º European Congress on NDT (Barcelona, Spain, 2002). Six papers presented. (b) Article about “Inspection System for Train Wheel” published in Insight, the British Institute of NDT magazine. (Vol45, Nº 6, 2003). (c) Active participation in the 10º Congreso Nacional de END (Cartagena, Spain, 2003). One paper presented. (d) Active participation in the 16º World Congress on NDT (Montreal, Canada, 2004). Four papers presented. (e) Active participation in the 2º Congreso Innovación Ferroviaria (Plasencia, Spain, 2006). One paper presented. (f) Active participation in the European Congress on NDT (Berlin, Germany, 2006). Two papers presented. One stand devoted to railway automatic equipment. (g) Active participation in the 7º Jornadas Técnicas sobre el Mantenimiento en el Sector del Transporte (Valencia, Spain, 2008). One paper presented.
Project references ULTRASEN has participated in various FP4, FP5 and FP6 projects, as well as in numerous Spanish-national R&D projects, with successful outcomes such as the industrial development ULTRASEN®, a HW and SW proprietary system specifically designed for advanced ultrasonic applications.
EUROPEAN: SUPERSKYSENSE as Coordinator (FP6 from Oct 2006 to April 2010); POLYTECT as a partner (FP6 from Sep 2006 to Dec 2010)*; CHAINTEST as a partner (FP6 from Sep 2005 to Oct 2008
Type: OTH Country: Italy
General description: LUCCHINI RS S.p.a. is an internationally recognized brand name in the design and manufacture of a full range of railway products including rails, crossings, solid and resilient wheels, axles and wheelsets complete with axle boxes, brake discs and gear unit to suit the most challenging applications in urban, commuter, intercity and high speed operations. Headquartered in Brescia, with main workshop in Lovere, LUCCHINI Sidermeccanica has an international manufacturing presence with production facilities in Manchester (LUCCHINI UK), Surahammar (LUCCHINI Sweden) and Warsaw (LUCCHINI Poland). By means of total control of the production processes (from the initial concept to the finished product) and special laboratory facilities testing in simulated working conditions (dynamic test rigs for full scale axles, wheels and wheelsets), LUCCHINI is able to constantly improve the existing production range and develop new products. LUCCHINI sees EURAXLES as an opportunity for wheelset technology advancement. LUCCHINI has under its own control the complete production from the steel making to the final product assembly. The R&D & testing department manages various full scale test rigs for the complete structure integrity verification of the its own designed and produced wheelsets. The R&D, Metallurgy and Quality departments will be involved in this project. These three departments are normally involved in product development, new product qualification through various tests, development of new steel grades, investigation on various king of wheelset in service damaging, production process control and quality improvement.
Role within the project: The RSS department has competence in wheelset design, full-scale testing (static, dynamic, fatigue, noise and vibration) and is responsible for R&D projects for new solutions, products, materials, design procedures and manufacturing process.
The RSS departments is responsible for: • Managing Research and Development projects concerning the railway wheelset products manufactured by the Lovere Plant, • Performing qualification tests on new wheelsets according to European Standards Specification, • Experimental testing on full-scale components with the aim of characterising and improving wheelsets components resilient wheels and developing innovative design methods, • Specific experimental tests on components like structural, dynamic and acoustic. Staff members undertaking the work Steven CERVELLO has been with the company since 1996. He is an engineer in Aeronautics. He is Head of Research and Testing Department. He is responsible for the development of new solutions against noise emission of railway wheels, considering the testing validation (laboratory and field) and the manufacturing process. He has previously participated in the EU projects (HEMBOT, HIPERWHEEL, HIPERTRACK, CORRUGATION, WIDEM). He has developed an important know how inside the project on railway noise emission and a patent pending is now active for an innovative wheel damping solution called Syope.
Publications & other project participation Publications (a) “Fretting fatigue in railway axles new design approaches”, S. Cervello, D. Ongaro (b) “The Widem Project Load measurement campaign on Czech Pendolino Train”, F. Braghin, S. Cervello, E. Dalle mura, P. KAVAN, F. RESTA Project references EUROPEAN: HEMBOT, HIPERWHEEL, HIPERTRACK, CORRUGATION, WIDEM, MODTRAIN, QCITY.
Type: OTH Country: Italy
General description: As designer, builder and integrator of diverse solutions for railway infrastructure diagnostics, maintenance management and signalling, MER MEC delivers end-to-end solutions to help heavy and light railways improve safety, efficiency and reliability of their networks. Measurement performance is proven, with 5 million points measured per second with an accuracy of 10 mm, overhead line measurements with 2 cm step at 360km/h, real time image processing at 100 Mbyte/s, automatic analysis of defects (200,000 items / h); and detection of cracks invisible to human eye. With more than 20 years of continuous innovation and a worldwide outreach, the MER MEC Group (MER MEC, ImageMap, Tecnogamma, MER MEC France) invests 15% of its total revenue in R&D. Research multidisciplinarity is a key, and its outputs are immediately tested and monitored.
Role within the project: In EURAXLES, MER MEC will participate in: • Data analysis of the axles in service • Definition of the final test specifications of innovative coating systems • Setup of an automatic system for inspection of axles in underloading and running conditions;
• Detection of surface defects and paint non homogeneity;
• Analysis of axle inspection with laser-based ultrasounds Secondarily, MER MEC will address aspects as:
• Investigation about possible protection solutions in the marine and food industries
• Management of the field test activity of two axles treated with the RINNOVA method actually in traffic in Norway (NSB railway lines); RINNOVA is an Italian funded project devoted to the axles treatment with a novel coating based on nanoSiC powders;
• Assessment of the economical feasibility and evaluation of the cost-benefit of the RINNOVA method
• Support for the assessment of the economic viability of innovative coating methods Staff members undertaking the work Giuliano Laudisa is graduated in Civil Engineering, Transportation branch. He manages MER MEC norms and regulations office. A Safety Analysis Expert in the rolling stock field, he contributed to the design of ROGER Diagnostic Vehicles. Patrizia Sforza is graduated in Physics in the field of High Energies. She has about 20 years experience in optical inspection for industrial applications, dealing with laser processing, electro-optic sensors, process control by optics and spectroscopy, railway diagnostics. She is a MER MEC Research Manager, coordinating the company research programmes in the railway field at the European and national levels. Antonella Semerano has 20 years experience in the field of image processing and control for robotics and the railway industry. She has worked in academia and research institutes in Europe (MATRA MARCONI SPACE, University de Paris 6) and outside (MIT Mechanical Engineering Laboratory, Joint Research Centre of the EC, Ispra site). She has had a large experience with European Commission projects, as a project coordinator and advisory member under Commission appointments. In 2007, she participated in the creation of INNOTECH company, MER MEC subsidiary in France, of which she is the associate manager in charge of the R&D policy at European and national levels.
Publications & other project participation Project references EUROPEAN: MER MEC participated in several FP5 craft project, FP6 strep project, integrated project and Marie curie project, FP7 Collaborative project and coordination and support action.
Type: SME Country: Belgium
General description: METALogic offers a wide variety of products and services for monitoring material degradation phenomena in general and corrosion in particular. The company was established in 1991 as a spin-off company of the department Metallography and Materials Engineering of the Catholic University of Leuven. Its customers can be found in the chemical, petrochemical and steel industry and many other sectors. METALogic develops technology to extend its own package of products and services, plays an active role in international scientific networks and provides solutions as independent supplier in contract research. Our advanced expertise in 3 technologies – ultrasonic research, electrochemical and acoustic emission – allow us to develop tailor-made solutions for problems in the area of materials research and corrosion control. Within its team of corrosion and material experts, METALogic possesses an ideal combination of industrial and academic knowledge in a number of disciplines, such as: corrosion monitoring, failure analyses and non-destructive inspection techniques, ultrasonic inspections, risk based inspections and welding technology.
Role within the project: METALogic will participate as a corrosion expert and quality control entity. With competenties in both fields, it shall perform a benchmark study to identify the best inspection techniques for corrosion detection of in-service axles encompassing electrochemical and more advanced NDT techniques. The final solution can be a single technique or the combination of the two above-mentioned types of techniques meaning electrochemical and acoustic based ones.
Staff members undertaking the work Telma CARVALHO, PhD in Engineering. She is experienced in failure analysis and development of new steel grades for demanding applications. Laurence PAUWELS, PhD in Electrochemistry. She is experienced in material science and has depth knowledge in modelling of electrochemical reactions and monitoring by EIS. Joris ROECK, Engineering degree in materials. He is experienced in NDT techniques, data interpretation and inspections of components subject to corrosion degradation.
Publications & other project participation Project references EUROPEAN: METALogic has a vast experience in carrying out European research projects and was involved in projects such as CCS2001 (4th Framework Programme, coordinator), CORMON (5th Framework Programme, GROWTH, Accompanying Measures, coordinator), RIMAP (5th Framework Programme, Thematic Network, network partner), TOFDPROOF (5th Framework Programme, RTD Project, subcontractor), AISHA I (6th Framework Programme, STREP, coordinator). At present, METALogic is involved in AISHA II (7th Framework Programme, collaborative project, project partner) developing corrosion sensors for uniform corrosion and modeling of corrosion evolution and remaining lifetime prediction
Type: HSE Country: Italy
General description: The Politecnico di Milano was established in 1863. The "Politecnico di Milano" is a science and technology university producing engineers, architects and industrial designers through a variety of innovative specialising courses, with great attention being devoted to all sides of education. POLIMI has always been based on quality and innovation in teaching and research, resulting in a prolific relationship with the economic and manufacturing worlds. It is nowadays organised in 17 departments and a network of 9 Schools of Engineering, Architecture and Industrial Design spread over 7 campuses over the Lombardy region with a central administration and management. The number of students enrolled in all campuses reaches approximately 40,000, which makes the Politecnico di Milano the largest institution in Italy for Engineering, Architecture and Industrial Design.
R&D Experience: The Department of Mechanical Engineering has its aim in the development, by theoretical and applied researches, of knowledge, methodologies, devices and systems proper to basic and applied mechanics. The research fields mainly regard: system mechanics, machine design, technical materials, mechanical technologies, mechanical plants and logistics, mechanical measurements, robotics and vehicle design. This department is fully involved in education as a direct support to the courses proposed by the Politecnico di Milano. It offers to the industries the possibility to have access to the results of researches and studies, but also to use its laboratories and knowledge. Particularly, knowledge transfer to industries is based on prefixed objectives, formalised in terms of research contracts. The Italian Ministry of Education has classified POLIMI among the top 5 Italian universities in terms of teaching and research quality. At a European level POLIMI has been ranked 15th among the universities by THE-QS. An international Peer Review Panel has classified the research activity of 57/98 staff of Department of Mechanical Engineering as ‘excellent’ (rank 3.5/4).
Staff members undertaking the work Stefano BERETTA is full-time Professor and Vice-Director of the Department of Mechanical Engineering. He got his PhD on the effects of small crack on fatigue strength of metallic materials in 1997 at the Kyushu University having as tutor Prof. Y. Murakami. His main research topics are: defect tolerance analysis of mechanical components and structural integrity. He has participated in the EU project WIDEM. Antonietta LO CONTE is senior Researcher. She got her PhD on Structural assessment of Nuclear Pressure Vessels in 1995. Her main research topics are: crashworthiness and fatigue design in railway vehicles, creep behaviour and creep crack growth of nickel superalloy, internal damping of metals and composites materials. Michele CARBONI is Researcher. He got his PhD on crack propagation and defect influence under variable amplitude loading in 2002. His main research topics are: crack propagation modelling, damage tolerance, NDT and determination of inspection intervals for mechanical components. Previously participated in the EU project WIDEM.
Publications & other project participation Publications Project references NATIONAL: Research Project “High capacity trains: reliability of the mounted wheelset and influence on the line durability”, funded by the Italian Minister for Scientific and Technological Research (2004-2006). “Full-scale crack propagation tests on axles” – LUCCHINI – 2006. “POD and inspection intervals of bored axles” – LUCCHINI Sidermeccanica – 2006. "Static and Fatigue strength of a railway bogie – Fatigue modelling and tests on specimens" – ALSTOM – 2006. EUROPEAN: European Project WIDEM (Wheelset Integrated Design and Effective Maintenance): activity of WP’s 5 and 7 (2005-2007).
Type: OTH Country: Germany
General description: Radsatzfabrik Ilsenburg GmbH supplies complete wheelsets for railway vehicles, machined axles and wheels (spare parts). RAFIL also offers and wheelset maintenance. In line with safety requirements for railway operations, automatic ultrasonic wheel testing equipment and two magnetic particle inspection test benches are available for non-destructive testing of wheels and axles. FE technology is widely used, as well as a static and dynamic test bench accredited according to EN 17025 by DAP in 2009.
Role within the project: The team shall contribute to the WP’s 2, 3 and 4. The testing facility will allow full scale fatigue tests. In WP2, RAFIL will participate in FE calculation of axles using the company’s FE calculation system. In WP4, the team will contribute to the testing of new painting and/or coating techniques in a real industrial environment. Staff members undertaking the work Matthias Schwartze is graduated as a mechanical engineer, with a specialisation in railway vehicle technology. He now heads the design department and is the laboratory Technical Leader. Hagen Döbelt is graduated as a mechanical engineer, with a specialisation in railway vehicle technology. He is a specialist in FE calculations and in railway components testing.
Publications and other project participation Publications (a) Villmann, Schwartze: Development of a new standard passenger coach wheelset for the raethic railways, International Railway Conference, Dresden, 2005 (b) Schwartze: Opportunities and limitations of the rotating bending test facilities, International Railway Conference, Dresden, 2009 Project references RAFIL participates in the national BMBF research project “Safe and economic Service of running gear” (Running gear II), more specifically in the:
• In-service measurement of loads,
• Determination of fracture mechanical characteristics,
• Inspection and maintenance intervals.
Type: PB Country: Spain
General description: RENFE Operadora is the state-owned company operating freight and passenger trains on the 1668-mm "Iberian gauge" and 1435-mm "European gauge" networks of the Spanish national railway infrastructure company ADIF (Administrador de Infraestructuras Ferroviarias).The company operates some 15,000 km of railways, most of which are constructed to the broad "Iberian" gauge of 1668 mm (also used in Portugal) that is different from the French gauge standards and other European standards. The newer high-speed (AVE) network has been built to the international standard gauge of 1435 mm gauge in anticipation of its eventual connection to the rest of the European railway system. For this reason, the 1435-mm gauge is generally termed "European gauge" in Spain. The Spanish high-speed system is called AVE. (Alta Velocidad Española, Spanish High Speed). The high-speed lines are built to the standard European gauge (1435 mm). RENFE built in 1988 the high-speed rail line between Madrid and Seville. Nowadays, the speed of the train on this line reaches 300 km/h. The second high-speed rail line built by RENFE, from Madrid to Barcelona, was completed in 2007. The operational speed on this route reaches 350 km/h. The greater part of the line, from Madrid to Lleida, entered in service on October 11, 2003, with connection to Huesca from Zaragoza. The third high-speed line, Madrid – Toledo was opened in November 2005, followed by the spur from Córdoba to Malaga as far as Antequera in 2007. Another high-speed route from Madrid to Valladolid was opened in 2007, and other lines to Valencia and Lisbon are being designed by RENFE. A route between Madrid-Galicia is under construction. Other lines operated by RENFE include Alaris which is a moderate-speed line between Madrid and Valencia. In addition to intercity transport, RENFE operates commuter train systems, known as Cercanías (or Rodalies in Catalonia and Cercanías-Aldirikoak in the Basque Country), in eleven metropolitan areas, including Madrid and Barcelona.
Role within the project: Renfe is in charge of WP5.
Staff members undertaking the work Profesor Julio Alvarez is a Mechanical engineer. He is the president of the AEC’s transport commission and vice-president of AEC. He is the president of “Colegio oficial de Ingenieros de Madrid”, transport commission. He is also the head of R&D department in RENFE Integria. He is the ex-president of the workgroup bio-modal at UIC and the ex-member of the workgroup “combined-transport” in UIC. He is also a UIC promoter in Spain and organiser of several congresses (freight, passengers’ railway sector) in Europe. He led and is leading several Phd-theses. He also performed several R&D reports for different publications. Francisco Revilla has a MS degree in Electronic & Automatic Control Sciences as well as an MBA. He is a project engineer at RENFE, specifically in the High Speed and long distance trains Innovation technology Department. His focuses include main line harmonics optimisation, Energy efficiency, High speed track optimisation, Non destructive testing, and verification of the reliability of axles in service.
Publications & other project participation References: This is a short listing of the main NDT innovation projects financed by RENFE in the last decade. All projects have been privately financed by RENFE to improve the preventive maintenance capabilities of its workshops and the security of its rolling stock and the safety of its passenger.For simplicity within the frame of the EURAXLES proposal, this listing includes only projects which have been managed under the full leadership of RENFE and developed by ULTRASEN. 2003 – Equipment for wheel inspection – model units 446: – In partnership with ALSTOM, manual inspection equipment for wheels. 2003 – Equipment for the inspection of brake fixing drills – model units 446 and 447: – First prototype of automated system for the inspection of the critical areas around the drills for mounted brake disks. The inspection is performed with the unit in-service without dismounting the axle from the train. 2004 – Equipment for the inspection of brake fixing drills – model units 446, 447 and 464: – Second generation automated system for the inspection of the critical areas around the drills for mounted brake disks which allows the inspection of CIVIA units (464) and built for versatility to include future models. 2005 – Solid axle inspection system: – First prototype of semi-automated systems for the inspection of the critical areas of mounted solid axles. The inspection is performed from the axle’s ends without dismounting the axle from the train. 2005 – Hollow axle inspection system: – First prototype of an automated system for the inspection of the critical areas of mounted hollow axles. The inspection is performed from within without dismounting the axle from the train. 2007 – New generation of solid axle inspection system: – Second generation of a semi-automated system for the inspection of the critical areas of mounted solid axles, with the capability of operating with battery making it fully autonomous and portable equipment. 2009 – New generation of solid hollow inspection system: – Second generation of automated systems for the inspection of the critical areas of mounted hollow axles. 2009 – Equipment for the inspection of wheel rim, model units 446,447 and 464. – New evolution of the wheel inspection system to include simultaneously the web and the rim areas for a fully integrated and automated inspection process.
Type: OTH Country: Italy
General description: TRENITALIA SpA is 100% owned by Ferrovie dello Stato SpA, 100% owned by Italian Treasure Ministry. TRENITALIA is responsible for the management of the following transport services: long-way passengers, regional transport and freight transport. It consists of three transport Divisions: Divisione Passeggeri nazionale e internazionale (Passengers Division), Divisione Passeggeri Regionale (Regional Transport Division), and Divisione Cargo (Cargo Division). Furthermore, Direzione Tecnica, which is based in Florence, assures respectively RS maintenance and engineering services to the whole company.With about 46.2 billion of passengers-km and 22.3 billion of tons-km per year and a fleet of 55,000 units, TRENITALIA is one of the major European railways company. Their “Direzione Tecnica” has a high level skill and a long experience in RS engineering. The main tasks which has been given to the Technical Department are: • Definition of the technical specifications for the new RS; • Procurement of new RS and project management; • Research and Development; • Tests on RS; • Definition of safety & quality specifications for train operations. For research and certification activities, a well-equipped centre able to realize field and rig tests on a complete vehicles and on the main sub-components.
Role within the project: They will mainly inspect axles from the journal end. The device must record and export all data to a central database for post-processing. In the Technical Department the team follows all matters related to wheel sets. The team is composed of 4 persons. A member of the team (Dr. Eng.Ghelardini with his experience in IT & telecommunications environment) will allow to reach higher performance of the NDT procedures using the new tools proposed, improving their reliability. The aim is to establish a current practice across Europe checking the limits of existing technologies on the basis of the currently employed methodologies (both during maintenance and heavy maintenance).
Staff members undertaking the work Dr. Eng. Aruta Luigi is graduated in Mechanical Engineering at Naples University Federico II and member of operating Staff for NDT in TRENITALIA. He works in TRENITALIA since 1993, mainly in the NDT sector. He obtained the third level license AIPnD (Italian Society of non destructive testing and Monitoring Diagnostics) according to EN 473 in UT, MT and PT, and since 2004 he obtained the second level license in ET method. He participated to UIC WG to draw-up the Fiche 960 (Operating procedures for personnel working to NDT inspections); from 1999 he is the Technical Responsible of NDT Examination Centre of TRENITALIA, in Florence. Sarti Marco got his High School grade as Chief technician in Electronics in 1977. He works in TRENITALIA since 1978 and is now the responsible of TRENITALIA NDT Laboratory. He obtained the third level license AIPnD (Italian Society of non destructive testing and Monitoring Diagnostics) according to EN 473 and ISO 9712 in UT, MT, PT, VT; since 2004 he obtained also the second level license in ET method. From 2003 is the member of the Board of CICPnD. Dr. Eng. Ghelardini Antonio achieved a Degree on Electronic Engineering in 1993 at University of Florence. In 1993 he started working in Italian Rolling Stock Engineering Department in the field of Information Technology for railway vehicles. He is author of several papers published in Finite Element Modeling conferences. Nowadays, he deals with Information Technology on rolling stocks and is working on a high reliability NDT improvements project dealing with post-processing and archiving NDT data. Dr. Eng. Corbizi Alessandro is a mechanical Engineer. He first worked at the Mechanics and Industrial Technologies Dept of Florence University and was performing acoustic test in service on High speed trains. He has six year experience in automation. In TRENITALIA, he is mainly taking care of matters related to wheel sets. In the former years, participation to European research projects Hiperwheel and MODTRAIN/ModBogie At the moment he is involved as expert in some international groups such as TSI Wagon revision, CEN / TC 256 (Railway Applications) / SC 2 (Wheel set/Bogies) / WG 11 (Wheels and Wheel sets) and UIC. Each person of the team has written several articles published on Technical Review (both TRENITALIA internal and national level).
Publications & other project participation Project references EUROPEAN: EUROPAC 2004-2008, SILENCE 2004-2008, INTEGRAIL 2005-2009, MODTRAIN 2002-2008, TRANSFEU 2009, AERODYNAMICS IN OPEN AIRE 2005-2008, HEMBOT 1999-2007, HIPERWHEEL 2000-05, DYNOTRAIN 2009
Type: PB Country: France
General description: The SNCF is a state-owned industrial and commercial company (EPIC) since the 1st of January 1983. The railway reform of 1997 redefined the missions of the SNCF which are now the followings: • To operate the railway services on the French national railway network, • To ensure, for the account of RFF, the management of the traffic and circulations on the national railway network, as well as the operation and the maintenance of the technical installations and of safety corresponding. The SNCF EPIC has 4 strategic trades: • Freight and logistics. • Passenger traffic: with its public transport branch (SNCF Proximités), regulated activities of urban transport and interurban travellers and its SNCF Voyages branch, non regulated activities of passenger transport, deployment of the channels of distribution. • Infrastructure and engineering: Management of the traffic, installations operation and maintenance, export of the French railway expertise and valorisation. • Stations and connexions: Management of the stations Nowadays, there are 157,770 employees working for SNCF wand their 2008 turnover reached 18,5 billion Euro. SNCF is operating and maintaining, for the account of RFF, 31,041 km operated lines including 15,343 km of electrified lines and 1,881 km lines at high speeds. In 2008, they carried 1,085 billion travellers (85,03 billion passengers/kilometres) and the traffic freight amounted to 94 millions of tonnes (35,93 billion tonnes/kilometres).
Role within the project: SNCF will be leader of the WP2. They will provide an equipment for on-line light measurements of axles loads (for WP2). This will consist in a “black-box” connected to a GSM and accommodated in a rolling stock that can be circulating in a commercial operation. SNCF will also provide axles, specimen for material testing and rotating bending benches (1/3 and full scale).
Staff members undertaking the work Pierre-Etienne Gautier is in the company since 1982. He is Doctor and engineer in Structural Mechanics, and is a professor in Structural Mechanics. He spent 20 years at SNCF in the testing department (railway dynamics, acoustics) and 12 years in research. He is now the S&T Director of SNCF Research. Thi Mac-Lan Nguyen enters the company in 2008. She is a doctor and engineer in Solid Mechanics. She spent 7 years in the applied mechanics sector as a project manager, an expert in “Fatigue of materials” and the head of the “Fatigue and Reliability” research unit in the automotive industry (Peugeot Citroën). She is now responsible of the “Structural Mechanics and Dynamics” research group at SNCF. Francis Cocheteux is an Engineer in Structural Mechanics and running gear expert. He is in the company since 1984 where he is now, the Manager for Maintenance Assistance (Laboratory tests). He has 25 years of experience at SNCF. He is working in for the French committee call "TRIVE" concerning wheels and axles agreement.. Previously, he has worked for the ERRI/B169 running gear committee (RP19: Wheels calculation, Multiaxial fatigue criteria).
Publications & other project participation Publications: Provided in the endnote
Project references EUROPEAN: EUROBALT II, DYSAF, SILENT TRACK, SILENT FREIGHT, STAIRRS. NATIONAL: SILENCE, TRANSAERO, RAPIDE.
Type: HSE Country: Spain
General description: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M) is a public university founded in 1989 that has two faculties and a High School of Engineering. It has about 18,700 students, 1,707 professors, & researchers and 649 administrative staff. In 2008 UC3M was the second Spanish university in participation in the EU FP (by number of permanent researchers) and also in average number of publications per permanent researcher in the period 2002-2006 (Web of Science). Recently (CENAI Report 2009) UC3M has reached the top of the Spanish universities in research activity. In 2008 UC3M has received 22 M€ from different public R&D programmes (EU, Spanish and regional) and has signed R&D contracts with private companies for more than 13 M€. UC3M participates in 4 research centers, being the most remarkable for this project the EADS-UC3M center for integration of Aerospace Systems. It has a Research Service (staff 27 people) for the overall management of the UC3M research and for supporting the research units. This also includes an Office in Brussels. UC3M has attracted attention in the following fields: Mechanical engineering, Materials, Mechatronic and Robotic. UC3M is the first Spanish universities in industrial technologies and robotics researching. MAQLAB is an active group of Research in the Mechanical Engineering Department and the “Pedro Juan de Lastanosa” Institute for Research on Applied Sciences and Engineering. MAQLAB was founded in 2004 and it is now composed by 5 full professors, 4 associated doctors and 9 doctoral students. MAQLAB was in the Top 5 (2003-2007) TMM teach team at University UC3M (>500 team).
Role within the project: The team will carry out research in a new methodology to diagnose and classify defects in railway axles using vibration analysis data with DWT and NW. UC3M will apply the discrete wavelet transform theory (DWT) to specific selected signals obtained from an axle (test bench) in order to find characteristic patterns of a axle with a variable flaw (surface crack).
Staff members undertaking the work Dr. J.C. Garcia-Prada is a full time professor on Machines and Mechanism Theory, he has also a broad expertise on R&D projects on industry related projects (maintenance and defectology in roller bearings, gears, etc) including aerospatial industry as AMPER or EADS, electric industry as ENDESA, FENOSA, ROCA. Dr. J.L. Perez-Diaz is a full time professor, Ph. D. On Physics and Master on Mechanical Engineering. He has worked at CERN, where he collaborated in the design of the superconductive magnets in the LHC project. They have managed more than forty R&D projects related to applied Sciences and Engineering –for example with ENDESA, ROCA, SEPSA, ITP-Rolls Royce, INDRA, ABENGOA or LIDAX Dra. C. Castejón is a full time professor and Msc. Eng. Electronics. He has expertise on control and modelling of the dynamics of mechanical devices –particularly bearing, gears, harmonic drives- with superficial faults. Dr. García Prada and Dra. C. Castejón have developed a new methodology to diagnosis and classification on cracks on wheel using advanced techniques (wavelets and neuralworks).
Publications & other project participation Publications: Provided in the endnote
Type: OTH Country: France
General description: Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer (UIC) is promoting a close cooperation between railway enterprises and infrastructure managers to develop international railway transportation. It strives to maintain and develop the overall coherence of the railway system and to enhance competitiveness and interoperability through the use of state-of-the-art technology and modern management methods. UIC's tasks include:
• Preparing standards, regulations and recommendations to facilitate international traffic,
• Representing the rail transport mode, worldwide, in outside bodies,
• Promoting exchanges of information and experience, developing international training schemes.
Role within the project: UIC shall offer a platform for the exchange of information and the pooling of expertise from railway undertakings and infrastructure managers. It will participate in WP7.
Staff members undertaking the work Hans – Jürgen Geissler has been a Representative of ERRI in UIC committees for 16 years. He is now the contact point for UIC Sector Experts Teams “Technical Passengers/Freight”, “Running Gear”, “Data communication, Software & Diagnostics”, and Traction and electrical equipment”. He is also a project manager and member of the Steering Groups “Trainbus” and “TrainDy-Software Special group (TDS)”. Daniel Chambonnet coordinates communication between UIC and standardisation bodies T. Legrand coordinates communication between UIC and CEN.
Publications & other project participation Publications: Provided in the endnote
Project references EUROPEAN Ongoing: ERRAC RoadMap, INESS, INNOTRACK, RAILENERGY, AEROTRAIN, DYNOTRAIN, PANTOTRAIN, MODBRAKE, RAILCOM, CREAM, CLEANER-D, EUDD+ FUTURAIL, PROTECTRAIL. Closed: EURNEX, InteGRail, CONSURFUR, PROST, GLOBAL VIEW, HyRail, GREEN, MODTRAIN, SELECTA, SEDP, Trend, URLAS
Type: HSE Country: Italy
General description: The University of Udine was founded in 1978 as part of the reconstruction plan of Friuli region after a devastating earthquake in 1976. The purpose was to provide the Friuli’s community with an independent centre for advanced training in cultural and scientific studies. UNIUD has always been settling and following its main targets, i.e. dissemination of culture, knowledge and results of research activities, in order to contribute to the territorial socio-economic development. To refer to an example and proof of the University commitment in this sense, we can focus on the increase in teaching offer (from 1978 to 2002 the number of faculties students can choose among, raised from 1 to 10), on the spreading of its branches throughout the regional territory, on the number of undergraduate students (607 in 1978, 16,620 in 2008), PhD students (0 in 1978; 468 in 2008) and researchers (27 in 1978; 745 in 2008). Since its institution, UNIUD has rapidly earned a high standing reputation and acquired a position among the leading research universities. UNIUD was the first university to offer courses such as Preservation and Restoration of the Cultural Heritage, Food Technologies, Management Engineering and Banking Economics and was one of the first universities in northern Italy to offer Computer Science courses. The decision making process is strongly based on the consideration and interaction of the link connecting teaching, research/innovation and local and international market.The quality of Italian universities has been evaluated in 2009 by the ANVUR (Agenzia Nazionale di Valutazione del Sistema Universitario e della Ricerca – National Agency for the Evaluation of University and Research) and UNIUD received the 9th place for 2009.
Role within the project: The Department of Chemical Science and Technology of the University of Udine is intended to support research activities in the following fields: coatings deposition, metal protection, metal characterisation, electrochemistry and corrosion testing and materials degradation.
Team and Staff members undertaking the work The group working under the guide of Prof. L. Fedrizzi at the Department of Chemical Science and Technology has long lasting research experience relative to metallurgy, coatings, electrochemical and corrosion behaviour of metallic substrates and corrosion protection.The team will help having a comprehensive approach to the problems of materials production into the manufacturing chain, especially in the field of coatings and corrosion protection. Lorenzo Fedrizzi was a researcher at the IRST followed by 8 years at the University of Trento. He was, then an associate Professor of Material Science and Technology at the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. After that, he became director of both the Laboratory “Metallurgy and surface technology of advanced materials” of Friuli Innovazione and of the Master in Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Udine in 2006. He was appointed Doctor Honoris Causa in “Applied Sciences” at the Faculté Polytechnique de Mons (Belgium) in September 2008. He is now the chairperson of the Working Party “Coatings” of the European Federation of Corrosion (EFC) and member of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee (STAC). He published more than 300 papers on international and national journals and was the guest editor of 3 books on innovative coatings. Pier Luigi Bonora is a Professor of Materials Corrosion and Protection. He started as a professor of Corrosion and Corrosion Control in Industry and of Advances in Chemistry and of Chemistry at the University of Genoa. Then he became Professeur Associé at the Université de Provence. He was a teacher of Experimental Physical Chemistry at the University of Ferrara and then the Director of the C.N.R. Study Center of Applied Physical Chemistry. For 20 years, he has been a researcher at the C.N.R. in Ferrara and Genoa. He was a tutor of more than 70 graduation theses. He published more than 300 papers and was invited more than 50 times to write a paper at international conferences. In 2001, he received the Golden medal of Centre Francais de l'anticorrosion and the European Corrosion Award in 2003. He is a Fellow of both the Institute of Materials and the Institute of Corrosion (U.K.) and a Member of ISE and of the Associazione Italiana di Metallurgia (AIM). He is also an honorary member of the Associazione Italiana Tecnici Industria Vernici (AITIVA) and of the Associazione Italiana Finitura Metalli (AIFM) of which he is one of the founding Members. He is the past-President and member of the STAC of the European Federation of Corrosion. He was the founder and past-Chairperson of the Working Party "Coatings". Maria Lekka is graduated in Chemical Engineering at the National Technical University of Athens (Greece) in 2003. She obtained her Ph.D in 2008 at Department of Materials Science of University of Trento (Italy) with a thesis titled: “Design, production and performances of metal matrix micro/nano composite electrodeposits”. Since 2008, she is employed as contract researcher at the University of Trento (Italy). From 2010, she will be employed as contract researcher at University of Udine – Department of chemical Science and Technologies. Her main research interests are development and characterisation of wear and corrosion resistance coating systems.
Publications & other project participation References: Provided in the endnote
Type: OTH Country: France
General description: VALDUNES SAS is a French company specialised in the production of wheels, axles and wheel-sets for more than 90 years. VALDUNES designs and produces components for all railway applications, high speed trains, heavy haul applications, metros and subways, tramway wheels, and locomotive wheels. VALDUNES supplies the main railroads in the world following European standards, AAR specifications, UIC guidelines, etc. The VALDUNES group is particularly renowned for the design of new products and solutions to meet the ever-changing needs of it customers. VALDUNES has been involved in national and European working groups in order to improve the safety, reliability and availability of the railroad components. VALDUNES’ experts have worked in CEN groups for the definition and improvement of the standards (EN and TSI).
Role within the project: VALDUNES will define metallurgical specifications in order to respect mechanical properties required by the customer. The engineering department will manage the CAD definition, FEA analysis, validation of the products according to the main railway standards and railway car builder specifications. VALDUNES will perform Rams and critical analyses concerning safety. VALDUNES will also be involved in the protection definition of the axles. It will make recommendations concerning new solutions’ costs and efficiency. The NDT expert will analyze new procedures and solutions, and estimate the impact on maintenance practices. He will also participate in the evaluation of the existing solutions and provide feedback regarding practices in different domains. Staff members undertaking the work François Demilly is a Technical Director for VALDUNES since 2005 and has worked for the company for more 20 years. He is an engineer, having graduated from the Ecole supérieure de l’énergie et des matériaux (1987). His experience and background are in Metallurgy, Design and R&D (noise reduction, LCC, steel grade improvement). He participates in CEN working groups and the mirror group of the ERA. He has previously participated in the following EU projects: Silent freight and Hiperwheel. Thierry Ingouf is an expert for NDT inspection (level 3 according to EN standards – Ultrasonic, MPI , die penetrant, Eddy current inspection). He obtained a Master’s degree from LML Lille (mechanical department). His experience is focused on railway maintenance, and he is the leader, in France, of the CFCM committee in charge of the NDT inspector qualification. Yves Flament, having graduated from the mechanical school of Belfort, is expert in FEA calculation and heads the engineering department of VALDUNES, where he handles all product calculations in line with all railway standards.
Publications & other project participation Publications Several publications in the field of the proposal have been presented in recent years, including: (a) Predicting Resistance to Fretting Fatigue Cracking in Areas of the Axle Located Under Wheel Seats. International wheel-set congress, Orlando September 2004 A. Yameogo, A. M. Marechal, F. Demilly, F. Prioul, and J. J. Viet (b) Hub/Axle Fit Pressures (Ultrasonic Characterisation of Wheel Hub/Axle Interference Fit Pressures) Orlando September 2004 M.B. Marshall, R. Lewis, R.S. Dwyer-Joyce, F. Demilly, and Y. Flament (c) Fretting fatigue phenomenon on TGV axles: initiation and propagation aspect – F.Bumbieler, F.Demilly, Y.Flament, K.Kubiak, and S.Fouvry
Project references NATIONAL: Working group with SNCF about fretting-fatigue reduction on high speed train axles.
EUROPEAN: UNIFE(ERWA)-UIC working group about improvement of paint on railway axles.